Toni Morrison was born as Chloe Anthony Woffard in 1931 in Loraine, Ohio. She was the second of four children in a black working class family and expressed a very early interest in literature. She studied humanities at Howard and Cornell Universities followed by an academic career at the Texas Southern University, Yale, Howard University, and a chair at Princeton University since 1989. She was also an editor for Random House, a critic, and has given numerous public lecure; specializing in African-American literature. Morrison has been a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters since 1981, and has also been awarded a number of literary awards including the Pulitzer prize in 1988, and also the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1993.